The best gardens start with well prepared soil.
Always till your soil before planting in the spring. It’s best to till to a depth of 1 ft. You should also add soil amendments such as peat moss, mulch, fertilizer, manure, and other organic material as your soil dictates. Till in both directions and when the soil is sufficiently mixed with the amendments that you added, rake out the soil so it is smooth with a hard tined gravel rake and you’re now ready to plant. I like to water the beds in and let them sit over night before planting. An excellent small tiller, and the one I use, is the Mantis tiller. It is small, powerful, and very easy to use. It’s an invaluable garden tool and worth the approximately $300 investment. Please stop in for advice unique to you particular situation.